3-Phase Alternating Current

The three-phase alternating current consists of four electrical conductors, of which 3 are phases and 1 is the protective conductor. All three phases can be switched separately, allowing you to easily change the lights. This creates a functional system that is suitable for both accent lighting and the illumination of billboards and decorative materials.

Colour Rendering Index (CRI)

The colour rendering index describes the effect of lamp light on coloured objects. The higher this value, the more optimal from the user's point of view, as the more realistic the original colours in the light produced by the lamp. The colour rendering index of natural light (sunlight) is 100 Ra, so the best value available is 100 Ra. Colour rendering values for different lamp types depending on the colour of the light:

Halogen lamps: 95 - 100 Ra

Energy saving lamps: 80 - 90 Ra

Fluorescent lamps: 80 - 90 Ra

LED lamps: 70 – 92 Ra


Enclosed interior spaces, indoors, e.g. in the office, the Ra value should not fall below 80.



The value of 830 indicates the combination of Ra and the colour of the light.

The first digit, 8(0), denotes Ra>80. The 2nd and 3rd digits 30 (00) indicate the colour of the light, which in the example mentioned above is 3000K.




Class 1A

Lamps and luminaires with a Ra/CRI value of 90 or higher are classified in class 1A. The colour rendering index of these products is excellent, being close to daylight. These light sources can also be used in areas where colour reproduction is of special importance. Eg: For sales areas, workplaces, or for designers and graphic designers.


Class 1B

Here are included lamps with Ra / CRI values between 80/89. These lamps have a good colour rendering index. They are also suitable for living room and office use.


Class 2A

Lamps and luminaires with Ra / CRI values between 70/79 are classified in class 2A. Their colour rendering is medium or good. They can be used in areas where colour rendering is secondary. Eg: In warehouses or office.


Class 2B/3/4

Lamps and luminaires with a Ra / CRI value of less than 70 are classified in class 2B/3/4. Their colour rendering is inaccurate, so they are not suitable for places where we spend a longer time. They are only recommended for use where lighting is required, but colour rendering is not required.

Colour Temperature / Kelvin (K)

People also experience their environment through colours. The colour of illumination is the spectral composition of light, because it comes from a light source or a reflection of a body.

The reference value for the colour temperature is the candle flame (1500 K) and the blue sky (> 10 000 K). The higher the value of the colour temperature (Kelvin - K), the whiter the colour of the lighting. The lower this value, the warmer and lovelier the colour of the light.

Colour Temperature Classification:

Warm white (WW): < 3,000 K. This colour temperature is pleasing to the eye. It is worth using in places where comfort is of special importance, such as a living room, restaurant or bars.

Neutral white (neutral white - NW): 3 300 – 5 300 K. In addition to the white colour, there are no other added tones, so true lighting colour rendering can be achieved with this lighting, which makes it excellent for illumination in almost any room. Ideal choice for lighting workplaces and offices.

Cool white (cool white - CW): >5 300K. In addition to the white colour, a minimal bluish tone is also present, so this lighting provides an elegant, icy effect, resulting in stronger brightness and clearer lighting. It is excellent for lighting public places, offices, workplaces, hospitals.

Often there is an additional number below the colour temperature, such as 830. What does this mean? As shown below, it is a combination of colour rendering index and colour temperature.
So, the colour temperature 830 is:

1st digit 1: 8 (0) = Ra > 80

2nd and 3rd digits: 30 (00) = colour temperature 3000K


Efficiency (LOR = Light Output Ratio)

It is the quotient of the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire and the 'nominal' luminous flux emitted by the light sources used in the luminaire. The efficiency is affected by the illuminating surface of the lamp as well as the thermal conditions. The measured initial luminous flux (lm) shall be divided by the measured initial input power (W) of the same luminaire. Lighting efficiency is given in lumens / watts (lm / W), which can also be used to measure energy efficiency.

Illumination / Lux (lx) = lm/m2

Illumination, the amount of luminous flux on a certain surface (lx = lm / m2), is measured in lux (lx). One lux is equal to one lumen of luminous flux per square meter. Illumination cannot be measured in brightness because illumination can be perceived differently depending on the amount of reflection on the illuminated area. This is the reason for the different lighting patterns of dark / light walls, furniture or objects.

IP Protection

" The luminaire's protection class indicates how protected it is from contact, foreign bodies and water. This is identified by the IP numbering system used in many different electrical devices. The IP sign is followed by two digits, the first for protection against the ingress of foreign bodies, eg. dust, and the second for protection against moisture, eg. water.


First Digit: Contact and Protection against Foreign Bodies

0: No protection

1: Protection ≥ 50 mm against solid foreign objects

2: Protection ≥ 12,5 mm against solid foreign objects

3: Protection ≥ 2,5 mm against solid foreign objects

4: Protection ≥ 1 mm against solid foreign objects

5: Dust protected

6: Dustproof


Second Digit: Protection against Moisture

0: No protection

1: Protection against vertically falling dripping water

2: Protection against the sloping dripping water, up to maximum 15

3: Protection against water spray, up to maximum 60°

4: Protection against splashing water

5. Protection against water jets

6: Protection against a strong jet of water

7: Protected against second immersion

8: Protected against constant immersion

9: against a high-pressure water jet


Additional Markings:

A: Dangerous parts are not accessible by hand.

B: Dangerous parts are not accessible by fingers.

C: Dangerous parts are not accessible by tools.

D: Dangerous parts are not accessible by wire.

F: Protected against oil.

H: High voltage (>1 kV) device.

M: Water test while moving.

S: Water test at rest.

W: It can be used in certain weather conditions.

K: It is pressure-protected, ie it can even be cleaned with a steam razor (only for IP69).


General Combinations / Examples:

IP20 minimum requirement for interior lighting

IP44 water drop protected, e.g. House number lighting

IP54 e.g. Light illumination (outdoor)

IP65 e.g. Moisture resistant diffuser luminaire, recessed luminaires in bathrooms"

Light Distribution Curve

The spatial distribution of a light source's intensity results in a three-dimensional representation. From this intersection the light distribution curve is created. The intensity of light is usually given in a polar coordinate system as a function of the beam angle. Depending on the shape and symmetry properties of the luminaire's light intensity distribution, a distinction must be made between deep, wide, symmetrical and asymmetrical light distribution.


When determining the luminance, the luminous intensity of the surface element of the illuminator or illuminated surface is divided by the size of the surface element. Measure: candela/square meter


Luminance = candela / area (CD / m2)

Luminous Efficacy = Lamp Efficacy (lm / W)

Light utilization is a measure of the economic efficiency of a light source. Calculation: The luminous flux generated by the luminaire (lumen - lm) is divided by the energy consumption (watt - W). The higher the lumen / watt ratio, the more efficiently the lamp converts energy into light.

Luminous Flux / Lumen (lm)

Luminous flux is measured in lumens (lm). The luminous flux describes the sum of the 'amount' of visible light emitted by a light source. By definition, the luminous flux should be a power-type quantity, measured in watts. The meaning of introducing lumen is that the luminous flux refers to the range of visible light, as opposed to the radiated power that applies to the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

Luminous Intensity / Candela (cd)

Luminous intensity is measured in candela (cd), which indicates the luminous intensity emitted by a light source in a given direction.

Protection Class

" The protection class shows the measures taken during the design of the luminaire to avoid electric shock. The structure and mode of operation determine the protection class. Failure or short circuit can result in a life-threatening situation, especially for products with a metal housing. According to DIN VDE 0711, three protection classes are distinguished, which describe the range of protection measures against electric shock:

I. Contact Protection Class:

All electrically conductive housing parts of the lamp or device shall be tightly connected to the protective conductor system. The housing protective conductor connection is dimensioned so that there is no constant dangerous contact voltage on the housing and that the fuse or a residual current circuit breaker (FI relay) trips and disconnects the circuit.

II. Contact Protection Class:

Luminaires or devices belonging to protection class II shall have double or reinforced insulation. If the devices have an electrically conductive surface or a contact part, they are separated from the active parts by double or reinforced insulation. Most of these devices are not related to the protective conductor.

III. Contact Protection Class:

Luminaires or devices with degree of protection III. use extremely low voltage (SELV - Separated or safety extra-low voltage) or functional extra low voltage with electrically safe isolation (PELV - Protected extra-low voltage) and can therefore only be connected to the appropriate SELV or PELV power sources (at< 42 volts). These include safety transformers or batteries. Luminaires or devices with PELV have double or reinforced insulation between the mains connection and the conductive parts."

Reflector / Floodlights

A common feature of the various floodlights is their ability to illuminate large areas, making them excellent for general lighting of rooms as well as of larger areas and objects.


The three-phase alternating current consists of four electrical conductors, of which 3 are phases and 1 is the protective conductor. All three phases can be switched separately, allowing you to easily change the lights. This creates a functional system that is suitable for both accent lighting and the illumination of billboards and decorative materials.


"UGR is an abbreviation for the English expression ""Unified Glare Rating"". The UGR value is a unitless number that shows the magnitude of the blinding, dazzling feeling of indoor lighting. UGR values should be determined step by step in the range of 10 to 30. The levels determined in accordance with DIN EN 12464-1, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25 and 28 express a sense of statistical dazzling of many observers. The lower the UGR value, the fewer observers experience an unpleasant, blinding dazzling sensation. There are different rules about dazzling light for different activities:

Technical drawing: UGR≤16

Reading, writing, classrooms, computer work, audit work: UGR≤19

Industrial and craft work, reception: UGR≤22

Work, stairs: UGR≤25

Corridors: UGR≤28"